Flag of Israel
The country is situated in the Middle East with a coast-line at the Mediterranean Sea and a small outlet in south to the Gulf of Aqaba (Red Sea). Israel is bordered by Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and the Palestinian territories (West Bank and the Gaza Strip), it also shares maritime borders with Cyprus. The country covers an area of 22,072 km², making it slightly larger than half the size of Denmark, or slightly larger than the US state of New Jersey.
Israel's landscape offers a populous coastal plain, the sparsely inhabited Negev desert in south, the mountain ranges of the Galilee, Carmel and the Golan. Situated in the Jordan Rift Valley is the Sea of Galilee, also known as the miraculous Lake of Gennesaret or Lake Tiberias, the world's lowest freshwater lake (-212 m (696 ft)), the lake is connected by the Lower Jordan River with the Dead Sea, the famous saltwater lake, its surface and shores are 430.5 m (1,412 ft) below sea level, making it Earth's lowest elevation on land.
Israel has a population of 8.6 million people (in 2017), spoken languages are Hebrew and Arabic. Largest and most populous city and designated capital is Jerusalem, but Israel's sovereignty over Jerusalem is internationally disputed. The country's financial center is Tel Aviv, which is also home to all foreign diplomatic missions, embassies and consulates in Israel.
State of Israel | Medinat Yisra'el
The Name of Israel in Hebrew Character
short form: Yisra'el
int'l long form: State of Israel
int'l short form: Israel
ISO Country Code: il, isr
Actual Time: Thu-Nov-21 13:44
Local Time = UTC +2h
Daylight Saving Time (DST) April - Oktober (UTC +3).
Country Calling Code: +972
Capital City: Jerusalem
(Israel proclaimed Jerusalem as its capital in 1950. But nearly all countries maintain their embassies in Tel Aviv)
Haifa, Nazareth, Tel Aviv
Type: Parliamentary democracy
Independence: 14 May 1948
Constitution: no formal constitution
Location: Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt and Lebanon.
Area: 22,000 km² (8,494 sq. mi.); including the Golan Heights and East Jerusalem.
Terrain: Israel has plains, mountains, deserts, and a coast.
Climate: Temperate, except in desert areas.
Population: 8.6 million (2017)
Ethnic groups: Jewish and non Arab Christians: 80%; Arabs 20%.
Religions: Judaism, Islam, Christianity, Druze
Languages: Hebrew (official), Arabic (official), Russian, English
Literacy: total population 95% (female 93%; male 97%).
Natural resources: Timber, potash, copper ore, natural gas, phosphate rock, magnesium bromide, clays, sand.
Agriculture products: Citrus, vegetables, cotton; beef, poultry, dairy products.
Industries: High-technology projects (including aviation, communications, computer-aided design and manufactures, medical electronics), wood and paper products, potash and phosphates, food, beverages, and tobacco, caustic soda, cement, diamond cutting.
Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment, software, cut diamonds, agricultural products, chemicals, textiles and apparel.
Exports - partners: USA 27.5%, Hong Kong 8%, UK 6.1%, China 4.9% (2015)
Imports - commodities: raw materials, military equipment, investment goods, rough diamonds, fuels, grain, consumer goods.
Imports - partners: USA 13%, China 9.3%, Switzerland 7.1%, Germany 6.1%, Belgium 5.3%, Italy 4% (2015)
Currency: (New) Israeli Sheqel (ILS)
Israel in numbers
Israel key statistical data.
Following World War II, the British withdrew from their mandate of Palestine, and the UN partitioned the area into Arab and Jewish states, an arrangement rejected by the Arabs.
Subsequently, the Israelis defeated the Arabs in a series of wars without ending the deep tensions between the two sides. The territories occupied by Israel since the 1967 war are not included in the Israel country profile, unless otherwise noted. In keeping with the framework established at the Madrid Conference in October 1991, bilateral negotiations are being conducted between Israel and Palestinian representatives (from the Israeli-occupied West Bank and Gaza Strip) and Israel and Syria, to achieve a permanent settlement.
On 25 April 1982, Israel withdrew from the Sinai pursuant to the 1979 Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty. Outstanding territorial and other disputes with Jordan were resolved in the 26 October 1994 Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace. On 25 May 2000, Israel withdrew unilaterally from southern Lebanon, which it had occupied since 1982.
(Source: CIA - The World Factbook)
border countries: Egypt, Gaza Strip, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, West Bank .
related countries: Germany, United Kingdom United States of America
Image: Beny Shlevich
Israel's government system is based on parliamentary democracy with a multi-party system, consisting of a legislative, an executive and a judicial branch. Head of State is the president of Israel, the position has limited and largely ceremonial duties.
Head of Government (cabinet of ministers) is the Prime Minister. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in the Knesset (assembly). Israel does not have a constitution, the political system is based on the main principles set out in eleven Basic Laws.
Official Sites of IsraelNote: External links will open in a new browser window.
State of Israel
Israel's government services and information website.
The Israeli Parliament is the unicameral national legislature of Israel.
The Prime Minister
Benjamin Netanyahu's office.
Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Basic information about Israel and its people, offering material on the Israeli government and its policies.
Permanent Mission of Israel to the United Nations
Embassy of Israel
USA, Washington D.C.
Israeli diplomatic missions abroad
List of Israel's Diplomatic Missions Abroad.
Foreign Missions In Israel
Address List of Foreign Missions In Israel.
Requirements for a Visa
Consular information for travellers.
The Geneva Accord
Text of the "unofficial" peace agreement of the Geneva Initiative drafted by moderate Israeli and Palestinian leaders to resolve the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.
Central Bureau of Statistics
Israel Meteorological Service
IMS provides meteorological information for Israel.
with 7 days forecast. (in English and Hebrew)
Map of Israel
Politcal Map of Israel.
Google Earth Israel
Map and satellite view of Israel.
Google Earth Jerusalem
Map and satellite view of Jerusalem.
Google Earth Tel Aviv
Map and satellite view of Tel Aviv.
Google Earth Nazareth
Map and satellite view of Nazareth.
Google Earth Temple Mount
Annotated satellite view of Jerusalem's Temple Mount/Noble Sanctuary.
Map of Sinai Peninsula
Map of the Mediterranean Region
Map of Western Asia and the Middle East region
Map of Northern Africa and the Middle East
More Maps of Israel
Israeli Security Barrier -- Current Status
Map of the Israeli Security Fence (April 2006).
Map of Western Asia
Map of South Western Asia and the Middle East region.
Map of Northern Africa and the Middle East
Political Map of of North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula and the Middle East.
Historical maps of Palestine/Israel
Six small maps: From Palestine in Biblical Times until now.
Online News from Israel
Israel National News.
Israeli business paper in English.
Daily Newspaper - English Internet Edition.
The latest news from Israel.
The Jerusalem Post Daily Internet Edition.
News portal for Israel, the Middle East and international news.
News in Hebrew
Tel Aviv-based Israeli daily.
Tel Aviv-based Israeli daily newspaper.
International News on Israel
The Guardian (UK) - Israel and the Middle East
Bookmark/share this page
Image: Martin Furtschegger
Arts & Culture
Breaking the Ice
Extreme Peace Mission, an Israeli-Palestinian expedition to Antarctica.
Design Museum Holon
First museum in Israel dedicated to design.
Israel National Museum of Science, Technology, and Space
Madatech is a science and technology museum in Haifa.
The Jerusalem Archaeological Park
5000 years of history.
The Jewish Virtual Library
Most comprehensive online Jewish encyclopedia in the world, covering everything from anti-Semitism to Zionism.
Official website of Israel's egalitarian communities.
Passover Recipes, Cooking Resources and more.
The Israel Museum
Encylopedic museum of art and archeology, Jerusalem.
Tel Aviv Museum of Art
Comprehensive collection of classical and contemporary art.
Business & Economy
Bank of Israel
The Central Bank of Israel, established in 1954.
Federation of Israeli Chambers of Commerce (FICC)
Business Opportunities from Israel.
Israel Export Institute
Information for doing business with Israel.
Tel Aviv Stock Exchange (TASE)
The Bursa is Israel's only public stock exchange.
El Al Israel Airlines
Israel's national airline.
Israel Airports Authority
Official website of Israel's airport authority, the public authority is responsible of Israel's main airports.
Israel Railways is the state-owned railway company maintaining all inter-city, commuter, and freight rail transport in the country.
Travel and Tour Consumer Information
Destination Israel - Travel and Tour Guides
Cities: Jerusalem (Temple Mount), Tel Aviv (major city on the Mediterranean coast, Jaffa Port), Haifa (port city at Mount Carmel, Hanging Gardens), Eilat (Coral Beach Nature Reserve), Old City of Acre (historic walled port-city from the Phoenician period), Masada
Lakes: Sea of Galilee (or Lake of Gennesaret, the lake Jesus walked on, lowest freshwater lake on Earth), Dead Sea (lowest saltwater lake on Earth),
Beit Shean National Park (Roman theater)
Find accommodation, attractions, festivals, events, tours and much more.
Israel's official North American Tourism web site.
Guide to the largest "Natural Spa" in the world.
Israel's travel and tourism guide.
The Noble Sanctuary
A tour guide to Al-Aqsa Mosque and the Dome of the Rock.
Jewish life, Israel, Judaism, news and more.
Western Galilee Tourist Guide
A travel and tourism guide to the Galilee region. (in Hebrew)
The Municipality of Jerusalem.
Official tourism information for Jerusalem.
Municipality of Haifa.
City of Tel Aviv-Jaffa.
The Arab University in Jerusalem.
Ben-Gurion University of the Negev
Internationally recognized institution of higher learning, established 1970.
Geophysical Institute of Israel (GII)
Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Well established research and teaching institution.
Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities
Israel Science and Technology Homepage
National database and directory of science and technology related sites in Israel.
Israel's oldest and premier institute of science and technology.
The largest university in Israel and the biggest Jewish university in the world.
University of Haifa
Liberal arts university in northern Israel.
One of the worlds top-ranking multidisciplinary research institutions.
Israel Education Directory
Page provides links to Israel education institutions.
Environment & Nature
Israel Nature & National Parks Protection Authority
Site with information about Israel's national parks and nature reserves.
Image: Andrew Shiva
History of Israel
Events in Israel's History a presentation by the Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
From ancient to modern Jewish History by "The Jewish Virtual Library".
Jewish National and University Library
Collected materials of all types which reflect or represent the history of the Jewish people.
Dead Sea Scrolls - Qumran
The Dead Sea Scrolls Project
established by the Oriental Institute, University of Chicago.
Orion Center for the Study of the Dead Sea Scrolls
Established in 1995 as part of the Institute for Jewish Studies at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
Scrolls From the Dead Sea
The Library of Congress exhibition describes the historical context of the scrolls and the Qumran community from whence they may have originated.
Holocaust (International sources)
Documentary Resources on the Nazi Genocide and its Denial
The Holocaust History Project
Archive of documents, photographs, recordings, and essays regarding the Holocaust, including direct refutation of Holocaust-denial.
Acts of the most terrible offence against humanity sculptured in photos.
Steven Spielberg's Survivors of the Shoah Visual History Foundation.
The Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority, Jerusalem.
Indymedia is a collective of independent media ogranizations and hundreds of journalists offering grassroots, non-corporate coverage of major protests.
The only joint Palestinian-Israeli public policy think-tank in the world.
Institute for Palestine Studies
Promoting research, analysis, and documentation on the Arab-Israeli conflict and its peaceful resolution.
The Origin of the Palestine-Israel Conflict
The search for an equitable solution must come to grips with the root cause of the conflict.
Judaism and Jewish Issues
Dedicated to answering the vital question, "Why be Jewish?"
The Jewish Universe
Arutz Sheva's index of Jewish related sites.
Judaism and Jewish Resources
A gates toJewish resources.
Jewish and Israeli Web Directory and Search Engine
The Portal Directory to the Jewish World.
Sources and additional Information on Israel
Amnesty International: Israel
BBC Country profile: Israel and Palestinian territories
Freedom House: Israel
Human Rights Watch: Israel/Palestine
Library of Congress Country Studies: Israel
Middle East Studies: Israel
Reporters Without Borders: Israel
UN Information System on the Question of Palestine
Collection of full-text documents relevant to the question of Palestine and the Arab-Israeli conflict in the Middle East since 1946.
The World Factbook -- Israel
Other Countries and Territories in Southwest Asia:
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Qatar | Palestinian territories | Russia | Saudi Arabia | Syria | Turkey | United Arab Emirates | Yemen
Major Cities in the Middle East
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Jerusalem, Kuwait (City), Luxor, Manama, Mecca, Muscat, Nazareth, Nicosia, Port Said, Riyadh, Sana'a,
Sharm El Sheikh, Suez, Tehran, Tel Aviv
Other Countries in the Mediterranean:
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